Shachar, Ayelet, Prof. Dr.

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Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity
Hermann-Föge-Weg 11
37037 Göttingen

Dagmar Recke
MPI-MMG Office Shachar
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Tel: 0551 / 4956 - 106
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Projekte und Positionen im Forschungsverbund

Leitung der Leibniz Forschungsgruppe The Transformations of Citizenship

Principal Investigator
Projektleitung: No Alternative? Challenges to Democracy Today | Forschungsschwerpunkt 1 – Umstrittene Ordnungen: Die Zukunft der Demokratie

Rechtswissenschaften, Politikwissenschaft
Law, Political Science

Citizenship theory, immigration law, cultural diversity and women’s rights, law and religion in comparative perspective, the shifting border, highly skilled migration, global inequality

Biografische Angaben
Ayelet Shachar is Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, where she heads the Ethics, Law, and Politics Department at the Institute. Before joining the Max Planck Society, Shachar held the Canada Research Chair in Citizenship and Multiculturalism at the University of Toronto Faculty Law, and was also the Leah Kaplan Visiting Professor in Human Rights at Stanford Law School and the Jeremiah Smith Jr. Visiting Professor at Harvard Law School. She earned her LL.M. and J.S.D from Yale University.
Shachar is the author of Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women’s Rights (Cambridge University Press, 2001, 2009)—winner of the American Political Science Association Foundations of Political Theory Best First Book Award, The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality (Harvard University Press, 2009)— named 2010 International Ethics Notable Book in recognition of its “superior scholarship and contribution to the field of international ethics,” and the lead editor of the Oxford Handbook of Citizenship (Oxford University Press, 2017), which received advance praise as “the definitive source on a critical concept in political and social life. Innovative in its conception and authoritative in its execution,” as well as over seventy-five articles and book chapters on citizenship theory, immigration law, multiculturalism and women’s rights, family law and religion in comparative perspective, highly skilled migration, the shifting border and global inequality. Her work has been published in venues such as Ethics & International Affairs, Journal of Political Philosophy, Yale Law Journal, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Citizenship Studies, Perspectives on Politics, The University of Chicago Law Review, Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, Political Theory, and Philosophy & Social Criticism. She is the recipient of excellence awards in three different countries (Canada, Israel, and the United States), the most recent of which was awarded to her by the Migration & Citizenship Section of the American Political Science Association.
Shachar was a Fulbright Fellow at Yale Law School, Emile Noël Senior Fellow at NYU School of Law, and Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. She is an elected member of the AMIAS board of trustees and serves on the editorial boards of five peer-reviewed journals in her field. Shachar has delivered keynotes and public lectures worldwide and has provided pro-bono expert consultation to judges, governmental commissions, the European Parliament and the World Bank, as well as non-governmental organizations specializing in citizenship, immigration and religious toleration. Her work has proven influential in public policy debates. It has been cited, for example, by England’s Archbishop of Canterbury and the Supreme Court of Canada.
In 2014, she was peer-elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada (FRSC) – the highest academic accolade in that country. In 2015, she joined the Max Planck Society as Director and Scientific Member of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. In 2017, she was named Member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen) – Germany’s oldest academy of sciences and humanities.




Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2020): Spatial statism: A rejoinder, in: International Journal of Constitutional Law, 18:1, S. 45–50.

Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Disruptive Innovation: Family Migration and Gender Justice,” Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies, 20:1, S. 13–33.
Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Migrating Borders/Bordering Migration”. In Berkeley Journal of International Law 37, 37:1, S. 93–151.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Spatial Statism”. In International Journal of Constitutional Law 17, 17:2, S. 387–438.

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “The Marketization of Citizenship in an Age of Restrictionism.” Ethics and International Affairs 32, S. 3-13.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “Competing Orders? The Challenge of Religion to Modern Constitutionalism.” The University of Chicago Law Review 85, S. 425-455.

Shachar, Ayelet (2017): "The Reinvention of Territoriality: Legal Cartographies of Borders and Migration Control". Max Planck Society Yearbook.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Squaring the Circle of Multiculturalism? Religious Freedom and Gender Equality in Canada." Law and Ethics of Human Rights 10, S. 31-69.

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "Citizenship and the 'Right to Have Rights'" Citizenship Studies 18, S. 114-124.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "On Citizenship, States, and Markets." Journal of Political Philosophy 22, S. 231-257.

Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Multiculturalism." In: Gregory Claeys (ed.) Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought. Sage/CQ Press.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2013): "Recruiting 'Super Talent': The New World of Selective Migration Regimes" Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 20, S. 71-107.

Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Demystifying Culture." I-CON International Journal of Constitutional Law 10, S. 429-448.
Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Highly Skilled Immigration: The New Frontier of International Labor Migration." ASIL (American Society of International Law) Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting, S. 415-419.
Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Just Membership: Between Ideals and Harsh Realities." Les Ateliers de l'ethique/The Ethics Forum 7, S. 70-87.

Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “Earned Citizenship: Property Lessons for Immigration Reform”. In Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 22, S. 110-158.
Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “Picking Winners: Olympic Citizenship and Global Race for Talent”. In Yale Law Journal 120, S. 2088-2139.
Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “The Birthright Lottery: Response to Interlocutors”. In Issues in Legal Scholarship 9.

Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “Freedom of the Dress: Religion and Women’s Rights in Secular States”. In Harvard International Review 32, S. 53-59.
Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “Global Gender Inequality and the Empowerment of Women”. In Perspectives on Politics 8, S. 279-281.
Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “The Return of the Repressed: Constitutionalism, Pluralism and Religion”. In International Journal of Constitutional Law 8, S. 665-670.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “The Future of National Citizenship: Going, Going, Gone?” In University of Toronto Law Journal 59, S. 579-590.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “The New Wall of Separation: Permitting Diversity, Restricting Competition”. In Cardozo Law Review 30, S. 2535-2560.

Shachar, Ayelet (2008): “Privatizing Diversity: A Cautionary Tale from Religious Arbitration in Family Law,” In Theoretical Inquiries in Law 9, S. 573-607.

Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “The Shifting Border of Immigration Regulation”. In Stanford Journal of Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 3, 165-193.
Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “The ‘Worth’ of Citizenship in an Unequal World”. In Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8, 367-388.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2007): “Citizenship as Inherited Property”. In Political Theory 35, 253-287.


Shachar, Ayelet (forthcoming): “Migration and Borders”. In Handbook of Migration Ethics. Johanna Gördemann, Andreas Niederberger and Uchenna Okeja, eds. (Springer).
Shachar, Ayelet (forthcoming): “On the Verge of Citizenship: Negotiating Religion and Gender Equality” In Oxford Handbook on Global Legal Pluralism. Paul Schiff Berman, ed. (Oxford University Press).

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “‘Religious Talk’ in Narratives of Membership”. In Constitutional Democracies in Crisis? Mark Graber, Sanford Levinson and Mark Tushnet, eds. Oxford University Press, 515-531.

Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Citizenship for Sale?” In Ayelet Shachar, Rainer Bauböck, Irene Bloemraad and Maarten Vink (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 789-816.
Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Constituting Citizens: Oath, Gender, Religious Attire.” In Richard Albert and David Cameron (eds.) Canada and the World: Comparative Perspectives on the Canadian Constitution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 98-122.
Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Introduction: Citizenship - Quo Vadis?” In Ayelet Shachar, Rainer Bauböck, Irene Bloemraad and Maarten Vink (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-11.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Faith in law? Diffusing tensions between diversity and equality." In: Seyla Benhabib and Volker Kaul (eds.) Toward New Democratic Imaginaries - İstanbul Seminars on Islam, Culture and Politics. Wiesbaden: Springer, pp. 315-329.
Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Selecting by Merit: The Brave New World of Stratified Mobility." In: Sarah Fine and Lea Ypi (eds.) Migration in Political Theory: The Ethics of Movement and Mobility. Oxford University Press, pp. 175-201.

Shachar, Ayelet (2015): "Law, Religion and Gender." In: Silvio Ferrari (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Law and Religion. Routledge, pp. 321-336.
Shachar, Ayelet (2015): "The Search for Equal Membership in the Age of Terror." In: Edward M. Iacobucci and Stephen J. Toope (eds.) After the Paris Attacks: Responses in Canada, Europe and Around the World. University of Toronto Press, pp. 65-73.

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “Dangerous Liaisons: Money and Citizenship”. In Should Citizenship be for Sale? Ayelet Shachar and Rainer Baubock, eds. (European University Institute: EUDO RSCAS 1/2014).
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "Family Matters: Is there Room for 'Culture' in the Courtroom?" In: Will Kymlicka, Matt Matravers and Claes Lernestedt (eds.) Criminal Law and Cultural Diversity. Oxford University Press, pp. 119-152.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "The Constitutional Boundaries of Religious Accommodation." In: Susanna Mancini and Michel Rosenfeld (eds.) Constitutional Secularism in an Age of Religious Revival. Oxford University Press, pp.175-191.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “When Law Meets Diversity: Implications for Women’s Equal Citizenship”. In Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies. Steven Vertovec, ed. Routledge, 234-244.

Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Talent Matters: Immigration Policy-Setting as a Competitive Scramble among Jurisdictions." In: Phil Triadafilopoulos (ed.) Wanted and Welcome? Hightly-Skilled Immigration Policies in Comparative Perspective. Springer, pp. 85-104.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Entangled: Family, Religion and Human Rights." In: Cindy Holder and David Reidy (eds.) Human Rights: The Hard Questions. Cambridge University Press, pp. 115-135.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "The Missing Link: Rootedness as a Basis for Membership." In: Sigal Ben-Porath and Rogers M. Smith (eds.) Varieties of Sovereignty and Citizenship. University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 124-146.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Interpretation Sections (27 & 28) of the Canadian Charter." In: Errol Mendes and Stephane Beaulac (eds.) Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms/Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. 5th ed, LexisNexis, pp. 147-190. Reprinted in Supreme Court Law Review (2d) 61, 2013, pp. 147-190.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Immigration Policy-Setting as a Competitive Scramble among Jurisdictions”. In Wanted and Welcome? Highly Skilled Immigration Policies in Comparative. Perspective Phil Triadafilopoulos, ed. (Springer), 85-104.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Interpretation Sections of the Charter (Art. 27 & 28)” In The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms/Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. Errol Mendes and Stéphane Beaulac, eds. (5th ed, Lexis/Nexis), 147-190.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Jenseits von Blut und Boden: Staatsbürgerliche Zugehörigkeit unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung” (Mosse-Lectures an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). In Staatsbürgerschaft: Rechtliche, Soziale, Kulturelle und Politische Grenzwerte. Klaus R. Scherpe and Elisabeth Wagner, eds. (Vorwerk 8), 61-74.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2013): "Entailed Citizenship." In: John Cunliffe and Guido Erreygers (eds.) Inherited Wealth, Justice and Equality. Routledge, pp. 81-97.

Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Citizenship" In: Andras Sajo and Michel Rosenfeld (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press, pp. 1002-1019.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “What We Owe Women? The View from Multicultural Feminism”. In Toward a Humanist Justice: The Work of Susan Moller Okin. Debra Satz and Rob Reich, eds. Oxford University Press, 143-165.

Shachar, Ayelet (2008): “Citizenship and Global Distribution of Opportunity”. In Citizenship between Past and Future. [Special volume celebrating the 10th year anniversary of Citizenship Studies]. Engin F. Isin, Peter Nyres and Bryan Turner, eds. Routledge, 139-149.

Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “Against Birthright Privilege: Re-defining Citizenship as Property”. In Identities, Affiliations, and Allegiances. Seyla Benhabib, Ian Shapiro, and Danilo Petranovic, eds. Cambridge University Press, 257-281.
Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “Feminism and Multiculturalism: Mapping the Terrain”. In Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. David Owen and Anthony Laden, eds. Cambridge University Press, 115-148.


Shachar, Ayelet (2020): The Shifting Border: Legal Cartographies of Migration and Mobility. Critical Power Series. Manchester University Press.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women’s Rights. Cambridge University Press.
Shachar, Ayelet (2009): The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality. Harvard University Press.

Sammelband (Hrsg.)

Shachar, Ayelet; Bauböck, Rainer; Bloemraad, Irene; Vink, Maarten (2017): The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford University Press.

Shachar, Ayelet; Brahm Levey, Geoffrey (2015): The Politics of Citizenship in Immigrant Democracies: The Experience of the United States, Canada, and Australia. Routledge.


Shachar, Ayelet (2020): Borders in the time of COVID-19, in: Ethics and International Affairs, Blog of Ethics and International Affairs,

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): "Golden Visas, Dreams & Ethics in Immigration" Carengie Council for Ethics and International Affairs Podcast: Ethics & International Affairs Author Interview with Ayelet Shachar.
Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “Perspectives: A Price Tag on Citizenship” Max Planck Research Magazine 3:18, S. 7.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): Cited in Amicus Brief by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel. Submitted to the Supreme Court of Israel, H.C. 6500/17 (case pending).
Shachar, Ayelet (2016): “Culture & Society, Personal Profile: Ayelet Shachar - Mediator between World” by Martin Tschechne, Max Planck Research Magazine 2:16, 70-76.

Working Paper

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “Dangerous Liaisons: Money and Citizenship” in Ayelet Shachar and Rainer Bauböck (eds.) Should Citizenship be for Sale? EUI Working Paper RSCAS 1/2014. European University Institute. Greek translation appeared in Review of Immigration Law 3 (2014), 123-129.


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