Shachar, Ayelet, Prof. Dr.

Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript eingeschaltet sein!

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity
Hermann-Föge-Weg 11
37037 Göttingen

Dagmar Recke
MPI-MMG Office Shachar
Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript eingeschaltet sein!
Tel: 0551 / 4956 - 106
Fax: 0551 / 4956 – 170

Projekte und Positionen im Forschungsverbund

Leitung der Leibniz Forschungsgruppe The Transformations of Citizenship

Principal Investigator
Projektleitung: No Alternative? Challenges to Democracy Today | Forschungsschwerpunkt 1 – Umstrittene Ordnungen: Die Zukunft der Demokratie

Rechtswissenschaften, Politikwissenschaft
Law, Political Science

Citizenship theory, immigration law, cultural diversity and women’s rights, law and religion in comparative perspective, the shifting border, highly skilled migration, global inequality

Biografische Angaben
Ayelet Shachar (FRSC) is the R.F. Harney Chair and Director of the Ethnic, Immigration and Pluralism Studies Program at the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto, where she is Professor of Law, Political Science, and Global Affairs. Previously, Shachar was Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity. At Goethe University Frankfurt, she is affiliated with the Faculty of Law and the Normative Orders Research Centre. An award-winning author, she has published extensively on the topics of citizenship, global inequality, competitive migration regimes, cultural diversity and gender equality. Her research is motivated by the need to develop new legal principles to address some of the most pressing issues of our time: how to live together in diverse societies, how to grant rights to those who lack formal access to membership, and how to tame the ever-expanding reach of borders and migration control in a world of persistent inequality.
Ayelet Shachar won the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize—Germany’s most prestigious research award for her groundbreaking work on citizenship and the legal frameworks of accommodation in multicultural societies.




Ayelet Shachar (2022): "Instruments of Evasion: The Global Dispersion of Rights-Restricting Migration Policies", California Law Review 110 (2022), 967-1009
Ayelet Shachar (2022): "Reply to My Critics" (Symposium on The Shifting Border), European Journal of Political Theory 21 (2022), 615-623

Shachar, Ayelet; Mahmood, Aaqib (2021): "The Body as the Border: A New Era", Historical Social Research, 46, 124-150.
Shachar, Ayelet (2021): "Unequal Access: Wealth as Barrier and Accelerator to Citizenship", Citizenship Studies, 25, 543-563.

Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2020): Spatial statism: A rejoinder, in: International Journal of Constitutional Law, 18:1, S. 45–50.
Shachar, Ayelet (2020): “Beyond Open and Closed Borders: The Grand Transformation of Citizenship”, Jurisprudence, 11, 1-27.
Shachar, Ayelet (2020): “Wide Angle - Shifting Borders: Invisible, But Very Real”, The UNESCO Courier: A Whole New World, Reimagined by Women, 2, 32-34.
(This article appeared in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Chinese.)
Shachar, Ayelet (2020): “Borders in Time of COVID-19”, Ethics & International Affairs Online Exclusive.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2020): Spatial statism: A rejoinder, in: International Journal of Constitutional Law, 18:1, S. 45–50.

Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Disruptive Innovation: Family Migration and Gender Justice,” Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies, 20:1, S. 13–33.
Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Migrating Borders/Bordering Migration”. In Berkeley Journal of International Law 37, 37:1, S. 93–151.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2019): “Spatial Statism”. In International Journal of Constitutional Law 17, 17:2, S. 387–438.

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “The Marketization of Citizenship in an Age of Restrictionism.” Ethics and International Affairs 32, S. 3-13.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “Competing Orders? The Challenge of Religion to Modern Constitutionalism.” The University of Chicago Law Review 85, S. 425-455.

Shachar, Ayelet (2017): "The Reinvention of Territoriality: Legal Cartographies of Borders and Migration Control". Max Planck Society Yearbook.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Squaring the Circle of Multiculturalism? Religious Freedom and Gender Equality in Canada." Law and Ethics of Human Rights 10, S. 31-69.

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "Citizenship and the 'Right to Have Rights'" Citizenship Studies 18, S. 114-124.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "On Citizenship, States, and Markets." Journal of Political Philosophy 22, S. 231-257.

Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Multiculturalism." In: Gregory Claeys (ed.) Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought. Sage/CQ Press.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2013): "Recruiting 'Super Talent': The New World of Selective Migration Regimes" Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 20, S. 71-107.

Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Demystifying Culture." I-CON International Journal of Constitutional Law 10, S. 429-448.
Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Highly Skilled Immigration: The New Frontier of International Labor Migration." ASIL (American Society of International Law) Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting, S. 415-419.
Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Just Membership: Between Ideals and Harsh Realities." Les Ateliers de l'ethique/The Ethics Forum 7, S. 70-87.

Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “Earned Citizenship: Property Lessons for Immigration Reform”. In Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 22, S. 110-158.
Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “Picking Winners: Olympic Citizenship and Global Race for Talent”. In Yale Law Journal 120, S. 2088-2139.
Shachar, Ayelet (2011): “The Birthright Lottery: Response to Interlocutors”. In Issues in Legal Scholarship 9.

Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “Freedom of the Dress: Religion and Women’s Rights in Secular States”. In Harvard International Review 32, S. 53-59.
Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “Global Gender Inequality and the Empowerment of Women”. In Perspectives on Politics 8, S. 279-281.
Shachar, Ayelet (2010): “The Return of the Repressed: Constitutionalism, Pluralism and Religion”. In International Journal of Constitutional Law 8, S. 665-670.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “The Future of National Citizenship: Going, Going, Gone?” In University of Toronto Law Journal 59, S. 579-590.
Hirschl, Ran; Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “The New Wall of Separation: Permitting Diversity, Restricting Competition”. In Cardozo Law Review 30, S. 2535-2560.

Shachar, Ayelet (2008): “Privatizing Diversity: A Cautionary Tale from Religious Arbitration in Family Law,” In Theoretical Inquiries in Law 9, S. 573-607.

Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “The Shifting Border of Immigration Regulation”. In Stanford Journal of Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 3, 165-193.
Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “The ‘Worth’ of Citizenship in an Unequal World”. In Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8, 367-388.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2007): “Citizenship as Inherited Property”. In Political Theory 35, 253-287.


Shachar, Ayelet (forthcoming): “Migration and Borders”. In Handbook of Migration Ethics. Johanna Gördemann, Andreas Niederberger and Uchenna Okeja, eds. (Springer).

Shachar, Ayelet (2020): “On the Verge of Citizenship: Negotiating Religion and Gender Equality” In Oxford Handbook on Global Legal Pluralism. Paul Schiff Berman, ed. (Oxford University Press), 1017-1043.

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “‘Religious Talk’ in Narratives of Membership”. In Constitutional Democracies in Crisis? Mark Graber, Sanford Levinson and Mark Tushnet, eds. Oxford University Press, 515-531.

Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Citizenship for Sale?” In Ayelet Shachar, Rainer Bauböck, Irene Bloemraad and Maarten Vink (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 789-816.
Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Constituting Citizens: Oath, Gender, Religious Attire.” In Richard Albert and David Cameron (eds.) Canada and the World: Comparative Perspectives on the Canadian Constitution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 98-122.
Shachar, Ayelet (2017): “Introduction: Citizenship - Quo Vadis?” In Ayelet Shachar, Rainer Bauböck, Irene Bloemraad and Maarten Vink (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-11.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Faith in law? Diffusing tensions between diversity and equality." In: Seyla Benhabib and Volker Kaul (eds.) Toward New Democratic Imaginaries - İstanbul Seminars on Islam, Culture and Politics. Wiesbaden: Springer, pp. 315-329.
Shachar, Ayelet (2016): "Selecting by Merit: The Brave New World of Stratified Mobility." In: Sarah Fine and Lea Ypi (eds.) Migration in Political Theory: The Ethics of Movement and Mobility. Oxford University Press, pp. 175-201.

Shachar, Ayelet (2015): "Law, Religion and Gender." In: Silvio Ferrari (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Law and Religion. Routledge, pp. 321-336.
Shachar, Ayelet (2015): "The Search for Equal Membership in the Age of Terror." In: Edward M. Iacobucci and Stephen J. Toope (eds.) After the Paris Attacks: Responses in Canada, Europe and Around the World. University of Toronto Press, pp. 65-73.

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “Dangerous Liaisons: Money and Citizenship”. In Should Citizenship be for Sale? Ayelet Shachar and Rainer Baubock, eds. (European University Institute: EUDO RSCAS 1/2014).
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "Family Matters: Is there Room for 'Culture' in the Courtroom?" In: Will Kymlicka, Matt Matravers and Claes Lernestedt (eds.) Criminal Law and Cultural Diversity. Oxford University Press, pp. 119-152.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): "The Constitutional Boundaries of Religious Accommodation." In: Susanna Mancini and Michel Rosenfeld (eds.) Constitutional Secularism in an Age of Religious Revival. Oxford University Press, pp.175-191.
Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “When Law Meets Diversity: Implications for Women’s Equal Citizenship”. In Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies. Steven Vertovec, ed. Routledge, 234-244.

Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Talent Matters: Immigration Policy-Setting as a Competitive Scramble among Jurisdictions." In: Phil Triadafilopoulos (ed.) Wanted and Welcome? Hightly-Skilled Immigration Policies in Comparative Perspective. Springer, pp. 85-104.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Entangled: Family, Religion and Human Rights." In: Cindy Holder and David Reidy (eds.) Human Rights: The Hard Questions. Cambridge University Press, pp. 115-135.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "The Missing Link: Rootedness as a Basis for Membership." In: Sigal Ben-Porath and Rogers M. Smith (eds.) Varieties of Sovereignty and Citizenship. University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 124-146.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): "Interpretation Sections (27 & 28) of the Canadian Charter." In: Errol Mendes and Stephane Beaulac (eds.) Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms/Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. 5th ed, LexisNexis, pp. 147-190. Reprinted in Supreme Court Law Review (2d) 61, 2013, pp. 147-190.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Immigration Policy-Setting as a Competitive Scramble among Jurisdictions”. In Wanted and Welcome? Highly Skilled Immigration Policies in Comparative. Perspective Phil Triadafilopoulos, ed. (Springer), 85-104.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Interpretation Sections of the Charter (Art. 27 & 28)” In The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms/Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. Errol Mendes and Stéphane Beaulac, eds. (5th ed, Lexis/Nexis), 147-190.
Shachar, Ayelet (2013): “Jenseits von Blut und Boden: Staatsbürgerliche Zugehörigkeit unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung” (Mosse-Lectures an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). In Staatsbürgerschaft: Rechtliche, Soziale, Kulturelle und Politische Grenzwerte. Klaus R. Scherpe and Elisabeth Wagner, eds. (Vorwerk 8), 61-74.
Shachar, Ayelet; Hirschl, Ran (2013): "Entailed Citizenship." In: John Cunliffe and Guido Erreygers (eds.) Inherited Wealth, Justice and Equality. Routledge, pp. 81-97.

Shachar, Ayelet (2012): "Citizenship" In: Andras Sajo and Michel Rosenfeld (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press, pp. 1002-1019.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): “What We Owe Women? The View from Multicultural Feminism”. In Toward a Humanist Justice: The Work of Susan Moller Okin. Debra Satz and Rob Reich, eds. Oxford University Press, 143-165.

Shachar, Ayelet (2008): “Citizenship and Global Distribution of Opportunity”. In Citizenship between Past and Future. [Special volume celebrating the 10th year anniversary of Citizenship Studies]. Engin F. Isin, Peter Nyres and Bryan Turner, eds. Routledge, 139-149.

Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “Against Birthright Privilege: Re-defining Citizenship as Property”. In Identities, Affiliations, and Allegiances. Seyla Benhabib, Ian Shapiro, and Danilo Petranovic, eds. Cambridge University Press, 257-281.
Shachar, Ayelet (2007): “Feminism and Multiculturalism: Mapping the Terrain”. In Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. David Owen and Anthony Laden, eds. Cambridge University Press, 115-148.


Shachar, Ayelet (2020): The Shifting Border: Legal Cartographies of Migration and Mobility. Critical Power Series. Manchester University Press.

Shachar, Ayelet (2009): Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women’s Rights. Cambridge University Press.
Shachar, Ayelet (2009): The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality. Harvard University Press.

Sammelband (Hrsg.)

Shachar, Ayelet; Bauböck, Rainer; Bloemraad, Irene; Vink, Maarten (2017): The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford University Press.

Shachar, Ayelet; Brahm Levey, Geoffrey (2015): The Politics of Citizenship in Immigrant Democracies: The Experience of the United States, Canada, and Australia. Routledge.


Shachar, Ayelet (2020): Borders in the time of COVID-19, in: Ethics and International Affairs, Blog of Ethics and International Affairs,

Shachar, Ayelet (2018): "Golden Visas, Dreams & Ethics in Immigration" Carengie Council for Ethics and International Affairs Podcast: Ethics & International Affairs Author Interview with Ayelet Shachar.
Shachar, Ayelet (2018): “Perspectives: A Price Tag on Citizenship” Max Planck Research Magazine 3:18, S. 7.

Shachar, Ayelet (2016): Cited in Amicus Brief by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel. Submitted to the Supreme Court of Israel, H.C. 6500/17 (case pending).
Shachar, Ayelet (2016): “Culture & Society, Personal Profile: Ayelet Shachar - Mediator between World” by Martin Tschechne, Max Planck Research Magazine 2:16, 70-76.

Working Paper

Shachar, Ayelet (2014): “Dangerous Liaisons: Money and Citizenship” in Ayelet Shachar and Rainer Bauböck (eds.) Should Citizenship be for Sale? EUI Working Paper RSCAS 1/2014. European University Institute. Greek translation appeared in Review of Immigration Law 3 (2014), 123-129.


Newsletter aus dem Forschungszentrum „Normative Ordnungen“

Zukünftig informiert ein Newsletter über aktuelle Veranstaltungen, Veröffentlichungen und wissenswerte Entwicklungen im Forschungszentrum „Normative Ordnungen“. Die erste Ausgabe finden Sie hier...

Nächste Termine

2. Februar 2023, 18.00 Uhr

Virtuelle Ringvorlesung"Algorithms // A Brave New World?": Hannah Ruschemeier (FernUniversität Hagen): Datafication and Collectiveness as a challenge for Law. Mehr...

2. Februar 2023, 19 Uhr

"Vertrauen und Protest in der Demokratie" Diskussionsreihe der Frankfurter Bürger-Universität: Unsichtbarer Widerstand – Vertrauen und Protest in der Demokratie. Mehr...


Neueste Medien

Judging Facts, Judging Norms: Training Machine Learning Models to Judge Humans Requires a New Approach to Labeling Data

Gillian Hadfield (University of Toronto)
Ringvorlesung "Algorithms // A Brave New World?"

Verkehrt die Welt: Buñuels Le fantôme de la liberté

Prof. Dr. Vinzenz Hediger (Professor für Filmwissenschaft an der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Co-Sprecher der Forschungsinitiative "ConTrust" am Forschungsverbund "Normative Ordnungen")
Lecture and Film: Kino am Abgrund der Moderne. Die Filme von Luis Buñuel


Weitere Videoaufzeichnungen finden Sie hier...

Neueste Volltexte

Hanna Pfeifer und Irene Weipert-Fenner (2022)

ConTrust Working Paper No. 3: "Time and the Growth of Trust under Conditions of Extreme Uncertainty. Illustrations from Peace and
Conflict Studies". Mehr...

Rainer Forst (2022)

ConTrust Working Paper No. 2: "The Justification of Trust in Conflict. Conceptual and Normative Groundwork". Mehr...